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The natural course of the paravertebral muscles after the onset of osteoporotic vertebral fracture

Takahashi S1, Hoshino M2, Takayama K3, Sasaoka R4, Tsujio T5, Yasuda H6, Kanematsu F7, Kono H8, Toyoda H1, Ohyama S1, Hori Y1, Nakamura H1.

Osteoporos Int. 2020 Feb 14. doi: 10.1007/s00198-020-05338-8. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract
This study revealed the change in the paravertebral muscles in patients with osteoporotic vertebral fracture. Increased pain is likely to be the driver for reduced activity, reduced activities of daily living, and consequent increase in fat infiltration of the paravertebral muscles, assumed to be secondary to reduced activity level or, conversely, partial immobilization.

INTRODUCTION:
To reveal the time courses and impact of the paravertebral muscles (PVMs) on the healing process of osteoporotic vertebral fractures and risk factors for PVM decrease.

METHODS:
Consecutive patients with symptomatic osteoporotic vertebral fractures were enrolled in 11 hospitals. At enrollment and 3- and 6-month follow-up, PVMs, including the multifidus and erector spinae, were examined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The PVM cross-sectional area (CSA) and fat signal fraction (FSF) were measured at L3. Low back pain (LBP), activities of daily living (ADLs), and risk factors for PVM decrease at the 6-month follow-up were investigated. PVM decrease was defined as > 1 standard deviation decrease of the CSA or > 1 standard deviation increase of the FSF.

RESULTS:
Among 153 patients who completed the 6-month follow-up, 117 (92 women, 79%) had MRI of L3 at enrollment and 3- and 6-month follow-up (mean age at enrollment, 78.5 years). The CSA did not change 6 months from onset (p for trend = 0.634), whereas the FSF significantly increased (p for trend = 0.033). PVM decrease was observed in 30 patients (26%). LBP was more severe, and delayed union was more frequent in patients with PVM decrease (p = 0.021 mixed-effect model and p = 0.029 chi-square test, respectively). The risk factors for PVM decrease were ADL decline at the 3-month follow-up (adjusted odds ratio = 5.35, p = 0.026).

CONCLUSION:
PVM decrease was significantly related to LBP and delayed union after osteoporotic vertebral fracture onset. ADL decline at the 3-month follow-up was a risk factor for PVM decrease. Therefore, restoring ADLs within 3 months after onset is important.