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To D or not to D: vitamin D in hematopoietic cell transplantation

Hong S1Ferraro CS1Hamilton BK1Majhail NS2.

Bone Marrow Transplant. 2020 Apr 25. doi: 10.1038/s41409-020-0904-7. [Epub ahead of print]



Vitamin D plays an essential role in bone health, immune tolerance, and immune modulation. Autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients are at increased risk of vitamin D deficiency, which may increase risks of bone loss and fracture, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and relapse, and can delay hematologic and immune recovery following HCT. Growing evidence indicates that vitamin D may have a role as an immunomodulator, and supplementation during HCT may decrease the risk of GVHD, infection, relapse, and mortality. In this paper, we review the role of vitamin D and its association with HCT outcomes and discuss prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficiency after HCT in adult recipients. We review the role of monitoring of vitamin D levels pre- and post-HCT and its supplementation in appropriate patients. We also review the use of bone densitometry prior to HCT and in long-term follow-up and the treatment of osteoporosis in this high-risk population.