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Uterine fibroids in menopause and perimenopause

Ulin M1,2Ali M1,3,2Chaudhry ZT4Al-Hendy A1Yang Q1.

Menopause. 2019 Nov 18. doi: 10.1097/GME.0000000000001438. [Epub ahead of print]

 

 

Abstract

Uterine fibroids (UFs) are benign tumors that arise from a single genetically altered mesenchymal stem cell under the influence of gonadal hormones. UFs are the most common benign gynecologic tumors in premenopausal women worldwide. It is estimated that nearly 70% to 80% of women will develop UFs at some point during their lifetime. UFs often present with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), pelvic fullness, and may have deleterious effects on fertility. The natural regression of UFs begins in menopause. This is, however, a generality as this pathology may still be present in this age group. Many clinicians are concerned about hormone therapy (HT) because of UFs regrowth; nevertheless, research of this subject remains inconclusive. If UFs are present in perimenopause or menopause, they typically manifest as AUB, which represents up to 70% of all gynecological consultations in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. As AUB is a broad symptom and may not be specific to UFs, a thorough evaluation is required for correct diagnosis and proper treatment accordingly. Understanding the unique characteristics of the available treatment modalities is crucial in deciding the appropriate treatment approach. Decision on treatment modality should be made based on selection of the least morbidity and lowest risk for each patient. Multiple modalities are available; however, surgery remains the method of choice, with the best cure rates. Various attempts to create an inexpensive, safe, and effective drug for the treatments of UFs are still in the early stages of the clinical trials with some showing great promise. Treatment options include tibolone, aromatase inhibitors, selective estrogen receptor modulators, uterine artery embolization, and selective progesterone receptor modulators. : Video Summary:http://links.lww.com/MENO/A493.